READING -Academic CAM-11
The diagrams below show the life cycle of a species of large fish called the salmon.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
The diagrams display the life cycle of the salmon, which is a large fish species.
Overall, salmon have an average lifespan of 9 years and their life cycle consists of four main stages: egg, fry, smolt, and adult. While the first three stages occur in freshwater, the last one takes place in saline water.
Firstly, salmon eggs are laid among small stones covered by reeds in the upper part of a river, where the current is slow. After the eggs hatch, the baby salmon hide among the stones for approximately 5 to 6 months to mature into fry that measure 3 to 8 centimeters long. They then swim to the lower, faster-flowing part of the river. After growing and feeding here for about 4 years, they reach 12 to 15 centimeters and are considered smolts.
They then head to the oceans where they grow into adult salmon which average 70 to 76 centimeters long. They spend around 5 years here, after which they migrate upstream to their birthplace to spawn, and the entire journey is repeated all over again.
Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world.
Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
Nowadays, the same products are available for purchase anywhere in the world, causing increasing similarities among countries. I believe this should be seen as a negative development for the entire world because it is making the world’s cultures less diverse and could also be detrimental to the travel industry.
The availability of the same products all over the world is leading to cultural loss since a product is part of a culture. For instance, fifty years ago, most Indian people wore clothing like saris and dhotis. However, the expansion of global brands such as Nike and Addidas into the Indian Market has led to a rise in the wearing of western-style clothing among young people. As traditional Indian clothing is being replaced by western fashions, some of the longstanding values of that country are being lost.
In addition, countries becoming more alike could affect the tourism industry. Many people pay a visit to another place to experience something unique to that culture. For example, a survey shows that Thai cuisine is the feature of Thailand that is most attractive to international tourists. However, now authentic Thai restaurants can be found all over the world, which means people no longer need to fly to Thailand to have a taste of real Thai food. This could result in a decrease in the number of foreign visitors to that country.
In conclusion, I believe it is a negative trend that countries are becoming less different. For one thing, it is threatening cultural diversity and, for another, it harms the tourism sector.
The first chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household. The second chart shows the greenhouse gas emissions which result from this energy use.
The first chart displays energy consumption in the average household in Australia, while the second chart illustrates the greenhouse gas emissions that come from this energy consumption.
Overall, while heating and water heating account for a significant proportion of energy use, most greenhouse gas emissions result from watering heating and other appliances.
Heating and water heating are the two largest uses of energy, at 42 and 30 percent of the total respectively. Other appliances consume another 15 percent, which is roughly twice as high as the percentage of energy used for refrigeration. The proportions of energy consumed for lighting and cooling are both very small, at 4 and 2 percent respectively.
Water heating is also a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, making up almost a third of total emissions. The second-largest amount of emissions comes from other appliances, at 28 percent of the total. Heating, surprisingly, is only responsible for 15 percent of total emissions, and this figure is roughly the same as that for refrigeration. The remaining 11 percent results from lighting and cooling.
Many museums charge for admission while others are free.
Do you think the advantages of charging people for admission to museums outweigh the disadvantages?
Many museums require an admission fee, while others do not. I believe the advantage of this fee far outweighs its disadvantage because, without it, many museums wouldn’t be able to protect their collections well.
On the one hand, entrance fees may discourage people from visiting. For example, in China, all public museums are free to Chinese citizens. So, low-income families who cannot afford places, such as amusement parks and movie theaters, often take their children to museums to spend their weekends. They may stop visiting them if they have to pay to enter. However, according to my observation, most of them go there not to appreciate the exhibits but to enjoy the free air-conditioning. They create noise and overcrowd museums. Therefore, I think a reduction in visitor numbers would not be a bad thing.
On the other hand, admission charges allow museums to better protect their collections. Due to climate change, natural disasters are happening more and more frequently. By charging for admission, museums can afford to use high-tech methods to minimize the impact of these disasters. For instance, with revenue from entrance charges, New York City’s Whitney Museum of American Art was able to build an up-to-date flood wall, which protects its works from potential flooding of the river nearby. I think this is a great advantage for museums because some of their works are masterpieces from the past. Keeping them in good condition is important for our cultural heritage.
In conclusion, although a paid-admission model may deter visitors, I believe this disadvantage is greatly outweighed by the advantage that the money raised helps to fund the upkeep of museums’ collections.
The tables below give information about sales of Fairtrade*-labelled coffee and bananas in 1999 and 2004 in five European countries.
The tables display how much Fairtrade-labelled coffee and bananas were bought in 1999 and 2004 in 5 countries of Europe.
Overall, while sales of bananas increased in Switzerland, the UK and Belgium and decreased in Sweden and Denmark, coffee sales showed a climb in all 5 countries.
In both years, people in Switzerland bought far more bananas than people in the other four countries, with sales rising significantly from 15 to 47 million euros. Banana sales in the UK and Belgium also went up, to 5.5 and 4 million euros respectively, whereas sales in Sweden and Denmark showed a decline, to 1 and 0.9 million euros respectively.
Only 1.5 million euros’ worth of coffee was bought in the UK in 1999; however, sales in this country increased dramatically to 20 million euros in 2004, which was the highest across the 5 countries that year. Although people in Switzerland were the biggest coffee buyers in 1999 with 3 million euros of sales, this figure showed a relatively small growth to 6 million euros in 2004. People in Denmark, Belgium and Sweden also bought more coffee in 2004, but the increases were slight, to 2, 1.7 and 1 million euros respectively.
Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Some people feel that all college students should study subjects they are interested in, while others claim that only the ones that will benefit their future should be allowed. I agree with the former viewpoint because students can increase the likelihood of having a successful career if they study subjects they like.
On the one hand, it is a good investment for students to study courses that will be useful in the future. Many people take on huge student loans to go to college. By earning a technology-related degree, for example, they can increase their chances of getting high-paying jobs, since tech giants such as Google and Facebook have high demand for this type of talent. In this way, they can pay off their debts and even go on to live a comfortable material life. However, I think not everyone is talented in technology. If they are forced to study related disciplines, they may fail to graduate, which would be a great waste of their college loans.
On the other hand, those pursuing subjects they have a passion for are more likely to succeed in their careers. When a student is truly passionate about what they study, they will put in more effort than their peers, and be more likely to become expert (Here, “expert” is an adjective.) in those subject areas. Therefore, I think all university students should have the freedom to pursue their passion in college so that every one of them can have the opportunity to become successful in the career they love.
In conclusion, although studying disciplines that will be useful in the future may be a good investment, I believe all students should follow their passion when choosing a major because this can improve their chances of career success.
The charts below show what UK graduate and postgraduate students who did not go into full-time work did after leaving college in 2008.
The bar charts display what UK graduate and postgraduate students went on to do after leaving university in 2008. Those who started working full-time were excluded.
Overall, the most common destination for graduate students was further study and the least common was voluntary work. The same was true of postgraduate students.
At nearly 30,000, graduates who continued on to further studies greatly outnumbered their counterparts who ended up in other situations. In comparison, only 3,500 graduates did voluntary work, making it the least common post-graduation destination. Those who worked part-time and those who were unemployed were very similar in number, at 17,735 and 16,235 respectively.
Those who did further study, at 2,725, and those who did voluntary work, at 345, were also the biggest and smallest groups respectively for postgraduates. However, far more postgraduates did part-time work, at 2,535, than went into unemployment, at 1,625.
It is important for children to learn the difference between right and wrong at an early age. Punishment is necessary to help them learn this distinction.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
What sort of punishment should parents and teachers be allowed to use to teach good behavior to children?
Learning to distinguish right from wrong at an early age is of great importance for children. To help them learn the difference, punishment is necessary. I completely agree with this point of view because getting punished is equivalent to facing the consequences of one’s bad behavior. However, only mild punishments should be allowed.
Punishment shows children their misbehavior has consequences. Take for example teenage boys who bully disadvantaged kids at school. Not punishing them amounts to encouraging their bullying behavior. This leads them to believe that they don’t need to respect their peers from low-income families. Punishment, by contrast, helps them realize their mistakes and that there are consequences of them. As a result, they may very likely stop bullying others; otherwise, they will deal with the consequences again.
However, only mild punishments should be used to discipline children. At a young age, children can be very rebellious. So, if parents scold or spank them for their misbehavior, they may become even more rebellious. Instead, parents can use mild punishments, such as taking away children’s pocket money and asking them to do household chores, and at the same time educate them about why they receive the punishments. These methods are unlikely to hurt their feelings and make them rebel more.
In conclusion, children should be punished if they misbehave because this lets them know bad behavior brings bad consequences. However, it is important to take care not to hurt their feelings; therefore, only mild punishments can be used to help them learn to tell right from wrong.
LISTENING - ONLINE TRACK CAM-11
Cambridge 11: Test 1
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Cambridge 11 : Test 4